The bolt goes through a metal strike plate into that "tiny piece of wood" called the door jamb (usually 3/4" thick). The strike plate is not going to fail. If all you do, however, is affix the strike plate to the door jamb with 1" screws, then it is quite easy to cause the screws holding the strike plate to the jamb to fail and open the door (basically, you can cause the door jamb to crack). What failed there? The jamb certainly but the only because the screws were not providing sufficient reinforcement.
If you affix the strike plate to the studs behind the door jamb with longer, heavier screws you are no longer relying just upon the jambs for strength and it becomes much more difficult to cause the door to fail.